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What Is The Cause of a Malocclusion?

What Is The Cause of a Malocclusion?

Malocclusion is most notable when the upper and lower jaws are not aligned properly. Our Burnaby orthodontists discuss how malocclusion can affect your oral health and hygiene.

Malocclusion: What Is It Really?

A malocclusion or irregular bite is a common dental problem that our Burnaby orthodontists see all the time. When you have malocclusion, your upper and lower teeth don’t align properly when you close your jaw. Malocclusion typically happens when your teeth are crowded — meaning your teeth are too large for your mouth — or are crooked. But it can also happen if your upper and lower jaws aren’t aligned. Malocclusion is usually treated with orthodontics or braces. Some more serious malocclusion might require surgery.

Can malocclusion affect my health?

Left untreated, malocclusion can sometimes lead to several health problems. Apart from causing dental problems such as decayed teeth, losing teeth or developing gum disease, malocclusion can affect how you chew food or how you speak. It can also damage your tooth enamel or cause problems with your jaw.

Just as important, untreated malocclusion can affect your mental health. Researchers have found connections between malocclusion and self-esteem. Some studies show people who have malocclusion avoid social situations and relationships because they feel self-conscious about their appearance.

What causes malocclusion?

Malocclusion can happen as a result of several different things:

  • Your teeth are too large for your jaw, causing your teeth to crowd together and affecting the alignment of your upper and lower jaw.
  • You lost a tooth and your remaining teeth shifted to fill that gap.
  • You sucked your thumb frequently as a baby or toddler.
  • You have an inherited condition that affects your jaw, causing your teeth to be misaligned.

Can teeth grinding (bruxism) cause malocclusion?

Research suggests that there may be a link between grinding your teeth and malocclusions. 

Can malocclusion cause temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD)?

Malocclusion can sometimes lead to TMJ disorders, which are disorders that affect your jaw joints and surrounding muscles and ligaments.

Symptoms of malocclusion

The way your smile looks is the most common sign of malocclusion. It can cause a noticeable overbite or underbite. Overbite or overjet happens when teeth in your lower jaw are too far behind the teeth in your upper jaw. Underbite happens when your upper front teeth are too far behind your lower front teeth. Other symptoms are:

  • Difficulty or discomfort when biting or chewing.
  • Speech difficulties are rare but include a lisp.
  • Mouth breathing.
  • Inability to bite into food correctly.

How is malocclusion diagnosed by your dentist or orthodontist?

Dental professionals typically check to see if your teeth are aligned as part of your regular dental visits. They might take dental X-rays to learn more about your condition or make impressions of your teeth. Your regular provider will refer you to an orthodontist for malocclusion treatment.

What are malocclusion classes?

There are three classes of malocclusion. The classes are based on your bite and whether your upper or lower teeth are misaligned:

  • Class 1: This malocclusion is the most common. The bite is normal, but the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth.
  • Class 2: These malocclusions, called retrognathism or overbite, occurs when the upper jaw and teeth severely overlap the bottom jaw and teeth.
  • Class 3:  Called prognathism or underbite, occurs when the lower jaw protrudes or juts forward, causing the lower jaw and teeth to overlap the upper jaw and teeth.

Can your dentist or orthodontist fix malocclusion?

Treatment for malocclusion might include:

  • Braces - Adding braces to your teeth that will gently pull them into alignment. The braces’ gentle consistent tug on your teeth reshapes the underlying bone in your tooth socket so your teeth are permanently shifted.
  • Clear Aligners - These are clear plastic appliances that gradually move your teeth into alignment.
  • Extraction - Extracting teeth to limit the amount of overcrowding.
  • Surgery - Performing surgery on your jaw to correct issues you inherited or fix jaw fractures that didn’t heal properly.

Can I prevent malocclusion?

Most malocclusion is thought to be hereditary and therefore cannot be prevented. In other cases, you can prevent malocclusion in your children by discouraging them from sucking their thumbs. You can develop malocclusion if you lose teeth. If you’ve lost teeth, consider replacing the missing teeth with dental implants or dental bridges.

To learn more about the orthodontic options that can be used to help treat malocclusion, contact our Burnaby orthodontists to book a consultation.

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